If you want to obtain profitability with your money, it is important that you know how to choose your investment. There are many options, and one of the most profitable alternatives are investment funds.
In these funds we can deposit our savings to give them profitability, although we will also have to be willing to assume the risks.
If you are looking for other lower risk products, or even risk-free, and you do not care what the profitability is not so high you can try the deposits, for example.
Anyway, today we will talk about mutual funds, what types of funds are there, who manages them, what are the assets in which we can invest in a fund and what kind of investor we are according to our profile. In addition, we will talk about the taxation of funds.
What is an investment fund?
An investment fund is a financial instrument that is used to invest in other products such as stocks, bonds or obligations, with the capital of all fund participants.
For what is understood, a fund works as a basket of investments, and we can contract it through a bank or using an investment agency.
Mutual funds are characterized by their flexibility, and there are different types for which we can choose a greater or lesser risk. In the funds can invest any, and usually is a product in which you can rescue the savings at any time, so in principle you should not have liquidity problems.
However, the funds are subject to market fluctuations and this may be beneficial or not. Sometimes you can win thanks to the quotes but others you will lose.
On the other hand, we have the guaranteed funds, which are those in which we can always recover the nominal amount at the moment in which the maturity term reaches.
What types of funds are there?
There are many funds in which you can invest, and this would be a summary of the main ones:
- Fixed income funds: They invest only in fixed income assets, such as bonds and bonds, bills, promissory notes, deposits … In general, safer investments are combined with other higher risk investments.
- Equity fund: In more than 75% they invest in equities, that is, in equities and other similar products. Subcategories are established depending on the market in which the fund is invested or the sectors of the fund’s activity.
- Mixed funds: Invest in both types of securities, fixed income and variable income. The higher the percentage in equities, the more profitability we will obtain in the fund, although the risk to which we will be exposed will also be greater.
- Guaranteed funds: The initial capital invested is guaranteed plus a return that can be fixed or variable in a certain period of time.
- Monetary funds: They usually operate in the short term and are invested in credit market assets. They offer low volatility so they are low risk.
- Funds of funds: Invest more than 50% of the assets in other investment funds.
- Global funds: They have no obligation to set any percentage or credit rating to the assets. They have not established a certain investment. They usually involve high risks, because we can not know in advance the percentages that will be allocated to variable and fixed income.
- Passive funds : These funds replicate to a specific index, such as the IBEX 35. The management fees in these funds are quite low.
- Real estate funds: They invest in real estate assets, obviously, and get the returns on their rent and the evolution in their prices.
- Absolute return funds: The “hedge fund”, for example. They are characterized by trying to achieve unguaranteed profitability objectives and be risky.
What tax advantages do investment funds offer us?
If you are wondering if investment funds have any advantage fiscally speaking, we will say yes.
For now the most remarkable thing about the funds is that all the profitability that we get in the investment will not be taxed until we withdraw the money deposited.
The moment we want to “rescue” that money from the fund and withdraw it to a current account then it will be the moment when we have to worry about taxation.
The advantage is that the investment funds allow us to maintain a capital invested, and generating benefits during the time we decide and without having to declare anything to the Treasury. Remember, you will only have to pay when you decide to take the money.
On the other hand, saying that in case of transferring a fund to another is not considered as a “rescue” of capital, that is, what can we do this procedure if we want to keep the capital generating profits and maximize the investment.
How should we pay the money withdrawn from the funds?
At the moment we withdraw the money from the funds we will have to declare it as capital gains in the income statement.
Regardless of whether we rescue the total investment fund or only a part of the capital invested, we will have to start paying for that money.
So at the moment we take this action to withdraw the capital of the investment fund to our bank account, the bank will give the Treasury 19% of the return.
This directly, and then later in the declaration, the profitability will be taxed in the following installments, along with the other capital gains and real estate capital yields.
- Up to € 5,999 of earnings 19% tax
- From € 6,000 to € 49,999, 21% tax
- From € 50,000 of earnings, 23% of taxation
It should be noted that if for whatever reason instead of gaining profitability we will lose it and that was the reason to “rescue” the money from the fund, we will have the possibility to compensate it with the gains and losses of the real estate capital yields and capital gains.
In this way the interests that we have to pay will be more realistic.
In addition, when the time is right we may not have to pay anything to the Treasury because in the rescue they will have immediately removed a percentage of the performance of the investment fund, and how it is logical in this situation will not charge us again.
This will be in case of not exceeding the first tranche of € 5,999. If you exceed 6,000 € then you will have to pay, but you will only have to pay the difference of the percentage of the section that corresponds to you.